In this experimental study, prospective elementary school teachers enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to (a) concurrently learn about children's mathematical thinking by watching children on video or working directly with chil-dren, (b) concurrently visit elementary school classrooms of conveniently located or specially selected teachers, or (c) a control group. Those who studied children's mathematical thinking while learning mathematics developed more sophisticated beliefs about mathematics, teaching, and learning and improved their mathematical content knowledge more than those who did not. Furthermore, beliefs of those who observed in conveniently located classrooms underwent less change than the beliefs of those in the other groups, including those in the control group. Implications for assessing teachers' beliefs and for providing appropriate experiences for prospective teachers are discussed.
Randolph A. Philipp, San Diego State University, School of Teacher Education & Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (CRMSE), 6475 Alvarado Road, Suite 206, San Diego, CA 92120; firstname.lastname@example.org
Rebecca Ambrose, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616; email@example.com
Lisa L. C. Lamb, San Diego State University, School of Teacher Education & CRMSE, 6475 Alvarado Road, Suite 206, San Diego, CA 92120; Lisa.Lamb@sdsu.edu
Judith T. Sowder, San Diego State University, Mathematics Department (emeritus) & CRMSE, 6475 Alvarado Road, Suite 206, San Diego, CA 92120; firstname.lastname@example.org