Baroody (1985) suggests repeatedly that rules and procedures can provide the answers to the basic number combinations in simple arithmetic. My research with older children and adults indicates they do not, at least in the general case. After correcting Baroody's description of my network retrieval model, I indicate five weaknesses in his argument. The debate over fact retrieval versus rule- and procedure-generated answers is an empirical one. I invite Baroody to report data that buttress his position.
Mark H. Ashcraft, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Cleveland State Universiry, Cleveland, OH 44115